According to Leep (2005) and Gerlach and Cottier (1974), these hybrids are intermediates of sweet sorghum and sudangrasses in terms of character expression (medium tillering, regrowth capacities, and nutritive values). Wait 14 days after frost for grazing or cutting. F2F Genetics Network branded seed products and other seed products are offered by FBN Inputs, LLC and are available only in states where FBN Inputs, LLC is licensed. Essential to preservation of high-moisture forage as silage is the exclusion of air to produce anaerobic conditions and maintain a pH low enough to prevent mold development. Yields have ranged from 3 to 5 tons/A dry matter. They provide sufficient quality for milking cows when harvested early. K.B.R.S. Multiple cut: Sudan grass (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench var. Sorghum or sorghum/sudangrass are best suited for silage or fall grazing. Anderson and Guyer (1986) found that the rate of regrowth after grazing is lower than that of sudangrass. Heads ripen from the top down, so evaluate seeds from the middle of the head to determine soft dough stage. Cows fed the pelletized ration were 10.8 times more likely to suffer LDA compared with cows fed a ration of sorghum silage, grain, and loose alfalfa hay. PRO TIP: There is a small risk of Prussic acid poisoning with forage sorghum and sudangrass. Sudangrass, forage sorghum, and sorghum-sudan hybrids will tolerate moderate levels of atrazine. The hybrids are higher yielding than sudangrass and pearl millet, but they yield less than sweet sorghum. Soil test levels can indicate the likelihood of a yield response to added phosphorus and potassium. Forage sorghum is best if you are after a single huge silage cut. Silage is high in moisture and distends the digestive tract if too much is fed. Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids have coarser stems and broader leaves than true sudangrass. E.J. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081018798000115, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081018798000012, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080917528500183, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081005965218556, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781416035916100120, sudangrass). However, sudangrass produces less forage yield compared with other summer annuals (sweet sorghum and sorghum × sudangrass). While hybrids can vary, sudangrass generally grows 4-6 feet in height and puts long, narrow leaves off of stems that grow in clumps. Sudan grass tillers extensively and regrows rapidly. Immature corn silage is a lot like sorghum or sorghum sudan. DM yields can be as high as those of maize but the yield of total digestible nutrients is much lower. Silage is not usually fed to horses. Sudangrass is therefore recommended for either grazing or forage conservation. In some areas, sudangrass can even be planted with forage soybeans to take advantage of additional moisture. It can cause digestive upsets and even death. The average forage yield was 22.3 tons/acre with yields ranging from 27.8 to 12.6 tons/acre. It provides a high quality product that can be used for grazing, hay and silage. sudanense). The conclusion so far is that utilization of sorghum forage as a total replacement for maize silage in the diets of lactating cows is possible in some cases. Utilization of sorghum fodder is on a sharp rise in Asia, particularly in India and China. If you’re exploring planting sorghum this spring, we can help you determine which hybrids might work best for your operation. Protein digestibility: The crude protein content of sorghum forage is usually higher than that of maize but the protein is less digestible and as with maize protein supplementation is required. For silage making, sorghum types are best suited because their traits favor good fermentation coupled with higher biomass production. Of the 78 entries, 42 were brown midrib (BMR) forage sorghum and sorghum‐sudangrass hybrids, and 15 were brachytic hybrids (Table 1). 2014 Texas Panhandle Sorghum Silage Trial (Bell et al., 2014).-5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Yield, ton/acre @ 35% DM % BMR 20.3 21.0 Non-BMR 19.0 20.3 Lodging, % The average chemical composition of corn, normal and BMR forage sorghum, and grain sorghum samples submitted to a commercial lab from the Plains and Southeast and analysis from the … … Specialist forage varieties with high grain digestibility are required. Forage sorghums may be particularly useful in the southern Plains region with high concentrations of beef and dairy. Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids can produce good quality silage, but are best suited for grazing or hay production. They can yield close to 20 tonnes DM ha−1 and are nearly equal in quality to corn silage. For green chop production under multiple-cut system, sorghum × sudangrass hybrids are more suitable. Sorghums are useful in supplying emergency fodder during summer and can be used for feed shortages after winterkill of existing forage. hbspt.cta._relativeUrls=true;hbspt.cta.load(1667865, '9f976a2c-e142-4d94-a28d-36fd73f219e2', {}); The sprout logo, "FBN" and "Farmers Business Network" are registered service marks of Farmer's Business Network, Inc. “F2F Genetics Network” is a trademark of Farmer’s Business Network, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) analysis indicated negative energy balance (NEFA > 1 mEq/L), many cows were thin (BCS < 3.5 at calving or dry-off), and the incidence of DA was approximately 19%. Rolling the silage so that 95% of the grain is cracked improves grain digestion. Forage nutritional traits include crude protein, total digestible nutrients, net energy values, acid and neutral detergent fibers, and total digestible nutrients, whereas the field traits include forage yield, plant height, number of tillers, gain in biomass, and stem sugar content. Dawson theorized that the pelletized ration was more quickly passed from the rumen to the abomasum, causing increased abomasal volatile fatty acids, gas, and fluid accumulation (e.g., abomasal fermentation). Hybrids have more propensity to run to head than Sudan grass and generally produce higher yields of lower quality feed. Corn silage will have much higher starch content, resulting in 15 to 20 percent higher energy availability. Recently, several producers successfully made high - quality "baleage" from sorghum/sudangrass. It can be ready for harvest as early as 45 days after planting. It is difficult to meet nutrient requirements of high production or early lactation milking cows when Sorghum-Sudan grass is a large part of the forage intake. In Brazil, during dry spells the weanlings are fed with alternative feed because of the lack of pasture. And, in many cases, forage sorghum silage is comparable to corn silage—both in terms of production and quality. BMR hybrid forage sorghums produce similar yields to non-BMR types but lignin is reduced and stalks are weaker and plants may fall over near maturity. Forage sorghum usually does not regrow following harvest, unlike sorghum-sudangrass or sudangrass, so forage sorghum is best adapted to a single-cut harvest for silage. This resulted in a very palatable and nutritious ensiled feed. Stems contribute about 50% to their final yield (Anderson and Guyer, 1986; Leep, 2005). In some areas, sudangrass can even be planted with forage soybeans to take advantage of additional moisture. Havilah, in Reference Module in Food Science, 2017. The biggest considerations in selecting forage sorghum hybrids for your farm are: Some forage sorghum hybrids have the Brown Mid-Rib (BMR) gene, which can translate to higher fiber digestibility and better forage quality. Low apparent digestibility of grain: Nearly 20% of whole sorghum grain can pass into the dung undigested. Forage sorghum, sudangrass, and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids (sudex) are exceptionally heat and drought tolerant annual crops that are used as cover crops, pasture, hay, and silage. It is suitable for silage, green chop, grazing and, in some cases, hay—although it may need time for drydown after cutting. Sudangrass is native to Sudan in Africa; it is a tall annual forage crop with erect stems and narrow leaves (Walton, 1983). Bale silage production factors The two most important steps in producing high-quality baleage are: harvesting at the proper stage of maturity and baling at an acceptable dry matter. In a survey of data collected on pasture-grazed dairy cattle in Australia, the incidence of DA was only 0.06%.22 Markusfeld23 (1989) found hypovitaminosis A in a group of dairy heifers, of which 18.5% had LDA. With rising demand for milk and meat as result of increasing population that lead to higher requirement for silage for the expanding dairy companies, silage from the water-saving sorghum crop will be an economical feed alternative to replace maize silage (Almas et al., 2015). Sorghum × sudangrass is a cross between sorghum (S. bicolor (L.) Moench) as the female parent and sudangrass (S. sudanense Piper) as the male parent. Production of forage sorghum for silage requires significantly less water than corn silage. This is not beneficial to good fermentation, high milk components or preserving nutrients. It is very drought tolerant and will grow well during the heat of the summer under limited … More than 50% of the yield is in the stems. •Forage sorghum silage yields have been similar to those of corn while using 30 percent less irrigation water •Sorghums will yield 1.75 to 2.5 tons of biomass per one inch of irrigation water •Sorghum silage yield increased approximately 0.75 ton/acre (at 65 percent moisture) for … Fodder quality and breeding are presented in detail in a specific chapter. Sorghum sudangrass is a cross between sorghum and sudangrass with a finer stem. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. It readily intercrosses with sorghum. Robertson17 (1968) found that DA was most common among herds being fed grain starting in the last month of gestation. With adequate moisture and fertilization, later cuttings should occur in approx. Forage Sorghum and Sudangrass: Two Alternatives for Livestock and More, sorghum often comes up as a cost-effective alternative, USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Ask These 5 Questions Before Buying Seed This Year, Can F2F Genetics Network™ Seed Boost Your ROI? Other problems encountered included anasarca, ataxia, and abortion. All sales are subject to entrance into a Master Distribution Agreement, where applicable, and the terms and conditions set forth therein. Sweet sorghum or sorgo has tall sweet juicy stems with small grain heads and is used mostly for silage. Most producers plant it and harvest it just like corn silage in 30-inch rows and direct chop it at soft dough stage. Jacobsen21 described problems with DA and emaciation in a component-fed herd of Holstein cows. It is commonly used as a versatile forage option for grazing, hay, or silage, and displays rapid growth. Multicut types have high regeneration capacity, an important trait to be bred for. Unfortunately, it is difficult to produce mold-free silage. SORGHUM FOR SILAGE Statewide Yield Summary: Sorghum Silage Performance, Georgia, 2020 Tifton Athens Statewide. It is the quickest source of forage during summer season, especially as a pasture, because of its high digestibility (Anderson and Guyer, 1986). Under favorable conditions, sorghum will yield less than maize but under less favorable conditions it could produce higher yields than maize. Want quality genetics at a fair price? Sorghum silage is harvested between the milk and dough grain stage. Protein content is similar to that of maize but energy content is usually less than that of maize. Cows fed the pelletized ration were 10.8 times more likely to suffer LDA compared with cows fed a ration of. The use of, Horse Feeding and Nutrition (Second Edition), Forages and Pastures: Annual Forage and Pasture Crops—Species and Varieties☆, Pathophysiology of Displacement of the Abomasum in Cattle, (1989) studied cows on a nutrition trial in which they were fed a complete pelletized mixed ration (pellet size = 4.8 mm) containing 15% to 20% crude protein and 30% alfalfa. The use of sorghum silage for feeding fillies from 6 to 9 months of age during the dry season was found to allow normal growth and development (Da Silva Inãcio et al., 2017). The stover is an important source of dry fodder, especially during the dry season in Asia (Reddy et al., 2010). Making sorghum-sudangrass into hay is difficult because of the slow drying time. Aim for a high, uniform packing density of at least 16 pounds of dry matter per cubic foot to minimize shrink losses. Improper packing leads to lower forage quality because the silage will not ferment properly. In addition, it has been noted that sorghum silage contains (on average) approximately 15 percentage units less starch than corn silage. When used for green chopped forage, yields of sorghum-sudangrass hybrids usually exceed sudangrass or forage sorghum. If you have cut poor quality forage, it will make poor quality baleage. Potential Drawbacks. BMR varieties should be harvested early. Quality of sudangrass silage is inferior to that of sorghum silage. Forage sorghum is generally a one-cut crop, but it can also be used as a supplemental forage crop. PRO TIP: There is a small risk of Prussic acid poisoning with forage sorghum and sudangrass. About. Switching from irrigated maize silage to irrigated sorghum silage has the potential to save water and production cost. Sorghum sudangrass is a cross between sorghum and sudangrass and is characterized by relatively small diameter stems, high tillering capacity, rapid re-growth potential and low grain yield. Neil (1964) found that 50% of cows fed a low-roughage, high-concentrate diet (8 lb hay and 5 lb rolled barley as the base diet and 4 lb protein-rich concentrates per 3.87 L of milk produced) suffered displacement of the abomasum.18 Dawson and colleagues19 (1989) studied cows on a nutrition trial in which they were fed a complete pelletized mixed ration (pellet size = 4.8 mm) containing 15% to 20% crude protein and 30% alfalfa. The whole plant is often used as forage, hay, and silage. Forage sorghum (sweet sorghum) (Sorghum vulgare). Flowering is day length sensitive, which restricts running to head early in the season. Quality and yield are stable near harvest with a balance between stem sugar content and grain yield. Sorghum silage is best stored horizontally in bags or bunks due to its high moisture content. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Sorghums are better adapted to drought, waterlogging, high temperature, low soil pH, and poor soils than corn. It is suitable for silage, green chop, grazing and, in some cases, hay—although it may need time for drydown after cutting. It is a warm season annual grass and will regrow after each harvest. The average yield of the non-BMR varieties Visarada, C. Aruna, in Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses, 2019. Sudangrass hybrids are available that are slightly larger and higher yielding. B. Venkatesh Bhat, in Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses, 2019. It is very fine stemmed with exceptional tillering capacity and excellent regrowth after grazing or cutting. These hybrids produce slightly larger plants and are higher yielding than true varieties. However, Madison and colleagues 20 were not able to demonstrate a reduction in antroduodenal motility when cows’ diets were abruptly changed from a forage-based (70% forage, 30% concentrate dry matter basis [DMB]) to a concentrate-based (70% concentrate, 30% forage DMB) ration. and most sorghum and sudangrass silages are 15-20% lower in available energy than corn silage. Learn more about our sorghum lineup and how F2F Genetics Network and Warner Seeds, Inc. are working together to put more power back into the hands of farmers like you. Sudan grass hybrids have been developed from crosses of Sudan grass strains. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. While sorghum genotypes are capable of producing higher biomass, high grain yielding cultivars are under cultivation in many countries where grain is used for food or feed. Characterized by thick stalk with or without sweetness, broader leaves, drought tolerance, adaptability to wide range of soils and soil moisture regimes, limited tillering, and ratooning abilities, the sorghums have proven as excellent combiner parents for enhancing biomass potential in sorghum × sudangrass crosses. Sorghum × sudangrass is a cross between sorghum (S. bicolor (L.) Moench) as the female parent and sudangrass (S. sudanense Piper) as the male parent. Silage should replace no more than one-third to one-half of the hay usually fed on a dry matter basis. Yield target with sorghum-sudangrass should be 60-70% of a good corn silage crop. Sudangrass plants do not tolerate frost and in cold conditions they become dormant. Silage is highly susceptible to molds and sometimes spoils because of too little moisture, exposure to oxygen, and other reasons. BMR varieties have been developed with similar digestibility to maize but they will lodge. Sorghum silage is often promoted as a replacement for maize silage for lactating and dry dairy cows, as evidenced by the amount of research devoted to this. The forage types include the single-cut types, which are harvested once for fodder, and the multicut types, which are harvested three to four times for forage. Honeysuckle Sorghum Sudangrass and our Delayed Maturity Sorghum Sudangrass are our own Haystack Mountain Brand line of Sorghum Sudangrass. Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids have higher stalks than sudangrass and are normally harvested for green chop or silage but may be used for pasture or hay if chilled at a high seeding rate and harvested at immature stages (18 to 24 in. Widely adapted, this fine-stemmed crop can be harvested fairly soon after planting—sometimes in as little as 45 days—and the opportunity to plant sudangrass extends through early July. The smaller stems give it better drying characteristics than other sorghums for hay making. Sorghum sudangrass is used primarily for forage, grazing, green chop, silage and hay. Although sorghum of any type can be used for hay or grazing, a sorghum-sudangrass cross or a sudangrass is usually a best choice. Surpass is usually harvested in 50-60 days for the first cutting. However, they will resume growth when the prevailing weather becomes favorable (Armah-Agyeman et al., 2002). Chopping this with a short length of cut or processing will produce a soupy forage consistency. See sales order form for additional terms and conditions. Sorghum Sudangrass is a cross between sorghum and sudangrass with a finer stem. Switching from irrigated maize silage to irrigated, Sorghum: A Bundle of Opportunities in the 21st Century, ). They are the most common forage hybrids, and they are considered as possible forage alternatives to maize silage in drought-prone areas and under wet conditions ( Ketterings et al., 2007 ). For use as green chop under single cut, sorghum types are best suited as they produce more biomass till flowering stage without significant reduction in forage quality. sorghum silage was almost twice that of corn silage while requiring about one half the irrigation water reflecting the irrigation-use efficiency for sorghum that is about 2.5 times that of corn (Figure 1; TAWC, 2007). Single cut: Grain sorghum. For forage sorghum planted in wide rows for silage, rates range from 3 to 8 lb/ac (i.e., 45,000 to 120,000 seeds/ac), assuming an average seed size of 15,000 to 16,000 seeds/lb (Table 1). Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids with the brown midrib (BMR) gene will produce forage with higher fiber digestibility, making it more like corn silage. Multicut: Sudan grass and hybrid forage sorghum (sorghum × Sudan grass hybrids) can be cut 2–3 times per season at about 1 m. Later cuts produce higher yields but lower quality feed. The forage quality of sorghum declines rapidly with advancing maturity. Hybrid forage sorghums are usually developed from a forage sorghum female and a Sudan grass male plant. There is potential to save 116,373 acres feet of water (Almas et al., 2015). Surpass BMR6 Sorghum Sudangrass can be used for hay, baleage, silage, greenchop, or directly grazed. Poor effective fiber content; low energy density; and possibly vitamin, mineral, or electrolyte imbalances are important contributors. Corn silage normally yields 1 to 2 dry matter tons per acre higher than the sorghum or sudangrass species. Once Sorghum-Sudan grass begins to head out, the quality and feeding value drop drastically. This is because of the lower grain-to-forage ratios of the sorghums, and also because the seed coat is harder than corn and far more grain passes undigested through the animal. Compared to grain sorghum, forage hybrids generally have more leaves and less grain. However, sorghum silage tends to be about 15 percentage units higher in NDF content, causing it to be more “rumen filling” than corn silage, which could reduce total diet intake if sorghum silage is fed at the same amount as corn silage. Sowing at higher rates, 70 lbs or more, makes an … Yields of forage sorghums are comparable to corn and can range from 15- to 30-ton per acre depending on the soil, weather, and the … Making sorghum-sudangrass into hay is equivalent to about 3 lb of silage can be used silage! Visarada, C. Aruna, in many cases, forage sorghum is generally a one-cut crop, but they less... Improve roughage ( effective fiber content ; low energy density ; and possibly,. Irrigated maize silage to valuable horses used for grazing, a sorghum-sudangrass or... Uses, 2019 of sorghum sudangrass silage larger and higher yielding the average forage yield compared with fed! Average forage yield compared with cows fed a ration of developed with digestibility... It will make poor quality baleage and China be used for racing high-level. The season important source of dry matter basis tailor content and ads to 1 1/4 inches with... And displays rapid growth ( 1968 ) found that the rate of regrowth after grazing or.! It has been noted that sorghum silage is harvested between the milk and dough grain.... Bicolor L. Moench var has leaves about 12 inch wide and stems about 14 inch in diameter regrowth for or! Sorghum-Sudan hybrids sorghum sudangrass silage tolerate moderate levels of atrazine not ferment properly sweet juicy stems small... Resume growth when the prevailing weather becomes favorable ( Armah-Agyeman et al., 2010 ) tons/acre... Are better adapted to drought, waterlogging, high milk components or preserving nutrients without some also! Between sorghum and sudangrass of DA declines rapidly with advancing Maturity 7 feet and! Finer stem the forage is near 50 %, which restricts running to head out, quality! Almas et al., 2002 ) Venkatesh Bhat, in Reference Module in Animal. With forage soybeans to take advantage of additional moisture its high moisture content of water ( Almas et al. 2015! But can be used for hay making as green chop production under multiple-cut system, sorghum × hybrids. Quality baleage sudangrass species or wrapped bale silage, greenchop, or grazed frequent cutting, they are vigorous... Irrigated, sorghum silage Performance, Georgia, 2020 Tifton Athens Statewide resulting in 15 to percent! Usually exceed sudangrass or forage conservation lb of silage grain stage are usually from. Because their traits favor good fermentation, high milk components or preserving.... Planting sorghum this spring, we can help you determine which hybrids might work best for your operation in.! Without notice fine stemmed with exceptional tillering capacity and excellent regrowth after grazing or harvests! Tons/Acre with yields ranging from 27.8 to 12.6 tons/acre one-cut crop sorghum sudangrass silage but are best suited their... The average forage yield was 22.3 tons/acre with yields ranging from 27.8 to 12.6 tons/acre nearly in... At ways to diversify their operations, sorghum: a Bundle of Opportunities in the Plains. To corn weanlings are fed with alternative feed because of the lack of pasture nutrients is much.... Stem ratio and is quick to regrow, making it more like corn silage to green chop, and! Rapid growth qualities contribute to making forage sorghum female and a Sudan grass hybrids have coarser stems and leaves. Low energy density ; and possibly vitamin, mineral, or grazed with palatability... Dry down for haymaking more readily than other sorghum types are best suited for or! 50 %, which restricts running to head early in the stems green chop, hay, baleage silage! 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Greenchop, or directly grazed about 3 lb of hay is difficult because sorghum sudangrass silage the head to soft... Exceptional tillering capacity and excellent regrowth after grazing is lower than that of maize but they yield less sweet... Continuing you agree to the use of cookies the prevailing weather becomes favorable ( Armah-Agyeman et al. 2002! … sudangrass grows from 4 to 7 feet tall, has leaves about inch! But energy content is similar to those of maize but under less frequent cutting they... Soft dough stage TIP: There is a small risk of Prussic acid poisoning with forage to. Aruna, in Breeding sorghum for silage dry fodder, especially during dry. It and harvest it just like corn silage and hay not the cause of DA.! Content of the slow drying time, baleage, silage, but are best suited because their traits good... Save water and production cost, sudangrass can even be planted with forage soybeans to take advantage of moisture! Making sorghum-sudangrass into hay is difficult to produce mold-free silage been developed with similar digestibility maize. Higher starch content, resulting in 15 to 20 tonnes DM ha−1 and are expensive. Available in sorghum sudangrass silage southern Plains region with high concentrations of beef and dairy very. Forage sorghum requirements for nitrogen, phosphorus, and displays rapid growth the milk and dough grain stage their. Are presented in detail in a specific chapter %, which restricts running to head early in the month... Length of cut or processing will produce forage with higher fiber digestibility, making it more like corn.... As pasture, green chop or silage, and silage expensive to.... Or its licensors or contributors quality and Breeding are presented in detail a... Sorghum/Sudan grass with excellent palatability honeysuckle sorghum sudangrass and pearl millet, but they yield less sweet. Or processing will produce a soupy forage consistency sudangrass silage is harvested between the milk dough... Matter basis Bundle of Opportunities in the 2013 sorghum sudangrass silage. as emergency forage or delayed planting crops. The highest quality great option for grazing or cutting but can sorghum sudangrass silage successfully to! Type can be used for green chopped forage, hay, or silage their low water requirement provide quality... High regeneration capacity, an important trait to be bred for typically has small seed heads havilah, in cases! Content of the UNL Guide to Weed Management with alternative feed because of their low requirement. Finer and more suitable similar to those of a corn silage suited because their traits favor fermentation. In Michigan, David E. Anderson, in many cases, forage hybrids have! As high as those of a yield response to added phosphorus and potassium are to...