Is this something I should be concerned about? En continuant à naviguer sur ce site ou à utiliser cette application, j'accepte que le groupe Houzz utilise des cookies ou d'autres technologies similaires pour améliorer ses produits et services, me proposer du contenu pertinent et personnaliser l'expérience utilisateur. eastern redbud folding leaves. It looks like your tree is an Eastern Redbud ... Cercospora, will not seriously damage the tree, but it will not look its best at times, including the loss of some leaves. It has begun to crack in the trunk from ground up. The leaves have not uncurled and it has the appropriate amount of water and lighting. I had two redbud trees planted in my backyard exactly one week ago today. Two nights ago I watered it in the A.M. & we had 2 inches of rain overnight but the leaves remain curled under and very immature looking. En savoir plus. (Obviously I will hold off watering to let it dry out some.) Rains have come in the last few days but they're still curled. With romantic pink blooms and heart-shape leaves, this ornamental tree has been inspiring affection since the days of the founding fathers, Use it as an accent plant or mass it as a screen; this pine and spruce alternative is a hard worker in dry, cold climates, Blissful and serene, these envy-inducing settings will put you to sleep, but for all the right reasons, Create a relaxed, outdoorsy feel with a touch of nostalgia, by bunking with these games, artworks and accessories, Plant western redbud in drought-tolerant and habitat gardens for its outstanding beauty throughout the year, Dry climates can enjoy sprays of delicate pink flowers and heart-shaped leaves on this drought-tolerant, summer-flowering vine, Use texture in your bedroom to make it feel so cozy, you’ll never want to leave, Up your reading style and comfort with these chair and lamp combos too cozy to leave, Give your landscape the quintessential look of autumn with the red, orange and yellow leaves of these standouts, When the flowers fade, these leaves keep the garden looking good, Personnaliser mon expérience à l'aide de cookies, Bar and Counter Stools With Free Shipping, Great Design Plant: Curl-Leaf Mountain Mahogany, an Easy Evergreen, Guest Picks: Get Summer Camp Style Without Leaving Home, Great Design Plant: Cercis Occidentalis for Four Seasons, Great Design Plant: Antigonon Leptopus in California and Desert Gardens, 10 Perfect Pairings of Reading Chair and Lamp, 10 Native Wildflowers With Unique Foliage. I am having a bumper crop of beautiful cherry tomatos, however, in the last couple of days the leaves have started to curl and have brown spots, what is happening and will this affect the fruit ? Get glorious vegetables and fruits on your patio with a pro’s guidance — including his personal recipe for potting mix, Ripe for some citrus fertilizer know-how? We have had two or three very dry weeks. Subject it to uncharacteristic heavy rain such as Oklahoma, Texas and other states have been experiencing this spring and it will struggle, especially if the soil into which it was planted is less than perfectly drained. The leaves have been curling under for the past two wks. I thought I overwatered it so held back on watering and left it on the outdoor balcony to dry out a little. It appeared ... Q. Redbud Tree - I have a redbud tree and last year it developed pods. Mine has some leaf-curling on the newest sprouts (it's been plenty wet here), but I see that every yr. As long as the majority of leaves are OK, don't worry. If you had root rot you would have smelled it when you repotted the tree. More. We have gotten MUCH more rain than usual in the past month, so I haven't needed to keep it on any watering schedule yet. Another control strategy would be to apply a systemic insecticide such as imidacloprid to the soil under the … Why Are the Leaves of My Eastern Redbud Tree Dying?. Was considering some root simulator to strengthen the root system and help it fight back. But for the most part i keep it indoors next to a east facing window. Any help/advice from more experienced gardeners would be appreciated. Our new redbud lost a lot of leaves, but still standing... A lot of redbuds are looking about the same around here - I think all that rain did a number on our native trees! The tree is approximately 10 feet tall. For early spring color, many homeowners turn to Eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis), one of the first trees to bloom in spring. Although I have seen leaf curl on them before, it does seem to be more pronounced this time. What you should worry about and what you don’t need to worry about. I live in IL where the temp has been ranging from 70’s -90’s. Terms like stress and transplant shock are so general that they are rarely helpful. The nursery planted the tree on May 7th. We have had a heat wave last wk. You can buy a cheap infrared thermometer for about $20 dollars. They look perfectly healthy except for that. you seem to want to throw around disease and pandemic rather easily ... do you have facts ... or perhaps leading us down the wrong path ... we can discuss all kinds of disease possiblilities ... but ....this was a huge transplant.. barely 4 weeks ago ... and most likely leafed out at the time...it has TRANSPLANT SHOCK ... it is severely stressed ...i NEVER put sprays on stressed plants ...and i dont feed stressed plants ...i would perfect watering.. and hope the plant gets over the stress ...i would check for proper planting depth.. i would insure proper mulch ... and i would not water again.. until the soil under the mulch is near dry ...to ease my mind.. i might hand dig a hole next to the ball planted.. and FIND OUT... how wet the root mass is.. at depth ... better than guessing ...if proper watering is perfected... it can releaf..the problem is.. that peeps see a leaf wilt.. so they keep pouring on the water ... which might only lead to other problems....kenps: one also usually presumes stock come clean from sellers.. Ag inspectors and all ... disease and fungus usually dont pop up all this fast ... which leads me back to transplant shock. The OP isn't too far away from me and has also had a record setting rain total. Q: My big redbud tree bloomed and put on leaves normally this spring, but now it is losing its bark. It's not unusual for redbuds & usually does little harm. Q. Redbud Trees - I am in Indiana. Bark was missing as … Eastern redbud is a small deciduous tree. are small spring-flowering trees, with numerous species and cultivars. The western redbud (Cercis occidentalis) grows in USDA zones 7 to 9. Curled, deformed leaves might indicate water stress or aphid damage. Verticillium wilt disease is a problem that affects redbud tree leaves. Will be a while before I know for sure. In other words, gas exchange was hampered or severed for a long period of time and you are seeing the foliar affects of this. And yes, dryness/heat seems to exacerbate the curling. Is it possible that it's something more serious?? Jeanine Deal talks about how she saved her brown Redbud tree after talking to renowned landscape expert and arborist Gary Klooster of Klooster Landscaping. The Redbud is a poplar ornamental tree, which can be found in many gardens and streetscapes. based on the pic provided ... your location ... and any info other than the leaves are curled...i dont know...ken, Help with Curled and yellowed leaves on Lemon tree. I noticed 2 of its mature leaves were extremely curled in. It is first seen as a tree’s leaves wilt and turn brown. Often cankers can be seen on branches and twigs. Thanks ! Oklahoma redbud is adapted to the dry climate of the Southeast. Symptoms appear during the middle of the summer … Yes, it could and the nursery which planted it should be able to help with an identification. I have an eastern redbud, violet flowers in the spring, and this type has shiny leaves. Could one enhance your own yard? In this episode we explain everything that causes tomato leaf curl and how to fix it. Will Japanese maples show bright autumn color in partial shade? This spring when my redbud leafed out the leaves appeared to be cupped and they haven't ... Q. Redbud Tree In Nebraska - We thought our redbud tree died so we cut it all back had all these new shoots the next year ... Q. Best Fertilizer Redbud Tree world-leading agri business company. Try a deep root watering with a soaker hose around the drip line for 2 hours. We did not stake them because it was not recommended. The underlying problem, however, was most likely roots deprived of oxygen by over-saturated soil. Look for yellowed, wilted, curled leaves that may drop early. The pot is too hot or toxic dose of fertilizer. Is the leaf-less one dead? Western redbuds have a lifespan of 40 to 150 years, but Eastern redbuds are short lived and rarely survive 30 y… Aphids can feed on unopened leaf buds and then leave the area - the only evidence you'll find of their feeding are curled, distorted leaves. We planted an Eastern redbud tree in our backyard several years ago. I recently adopted a newly repotted & watered Monstera from a local nursery. Eastern redbud leaves are alternate, simple, broadly heart-shaped and 3 to 5 inches high and wide. Mine has some leaf-curling on the newest sprouts (it's been plenty wet here), but I see that every yr. As long as the majority of leaves are OK, don't worry. I have three Forest Pansy redbuds that are 6 years old and about 8 feet tall. Was exposed ... Q. The other disease that could be present is dieback/canker, which is the most destructive disease that attacks Redbud trees. And yes, dryness/heat seems to exacerbate the curling. Thank you for the comment! One is doing fairly well, while the other has dropped almost every single one of its leaves. Could the tree be suffering now from fungus or verticillium wilt? Bird-watching is an easy, entertaining and educational activity for the whole family, Flowering dogwood provides fiery red foliage in fall and beautiful springtime blooms, Personnaliser mon expérience à l'aide de cookies, Bar and Counter Stools With Free Shipping, Great Design Plant: Cercis Occidentalis for Four Seasons, 7 Spectacular and Practical Spring-Flowering Trees, New Ways to Think About All That Mulch in the Garden, 7 Great Trees for Summer Shade and Fall Color, How to Keep Your Citrus Trees Well Fed and Healthy, A Quick-Start Guide to Bird-Watching for Fun and Learning, Great Design Plant: Cornus Florida Benefits Wildlife. This mini guide will help your lemon, orange and grapefruit trees flourish, Set out some seed and grab your field guide. The pot in direct sun is probably 20-40F above ambient temperature. I'm hoping it will bounce back. Any idea if the tree can bounce back from that? :( I've been watering them daily (including misting the leaves more recently). Once the aphids are gone, the lady beetles move onto other plants in search of new food, leaving the curled leaves behind with no aphids or beetles. As I returned to observe these trees throughout the year, I discovered that their beauty extends well beyond the spring season, as the fading flowers give way to heart-shaped green to bronze leaves in summer and brown pods that remain on the tree after the leaves fall. Sometimes you half to water the pot just to remove the heat. Hi! Leaves. These landscape-pro faves straddle the seasons beautifully. Cankers begin as small sunken areas and increase slowly in size. trillium2 Taylorsville, CA Jul 07, 2007. My guess is, based on all the rain, that this is some sort of a fungus, but I wanted to check to be sure. Once you understand the unique thermal characteristics of YOUR pot you will have a better understanding how frequently to water. Is unique with its intensely colored reddish-purple heart-shaped leaves in the spring that become a deep reddish green in the summer. We recently purchased a young(ish) large Oklahoma Redbud from our local nursery here in Tulsa. Doesn't seem to have killed the tree, though... so we'll see how it weathers a fall and winter before making any final decisions. As scales feed, they excrete a sticky, sugary substance called honeydew which drips onto leaves and branches. En savoir plus. disperse themselves around the tree. Canker (fungus – Botryosphaeria dothidea ): The most destructive disease of redbud. I didn't even read the above responses.It is because of the incredible amount of rain we have had lately. Redbuds are prone to disease and the symptoms you describe could be caused by virus or microoganism infection, or the result of unusual environmental stress. I'm going to lose a couple redbuds, a silverbell, and a deodar cedar because of this. I finally was able to grow a seedling from an avocado seed and repotted after pinching off the top leaves and got some growth. Flea beetles of all kinds are active this time of year. I am watering it twice a day but it is mostly in the sun. Erin Powell. I'm in Arkansas and it's been in the 90s the past few days. The Redbud tree is a relatively small tree with spreading branches and a small short trunk. Magenta-rose flowers before leaves appear. In natural response, the tree blocks water carrying vessels and water movement becomes even less possible. The tree is one of the earliest flowering trees and is often used to add color to gardens. 5 years ago. Certainly your best source for help would be the nursery and any sort of warranty the tree carried, even though the rainfall was clearly beyond their control. Answer from NGA June 30, 2010. With romantic pink blooms and heart-shape leaves, this ornamental tree has been inspiring affection since the days of the founding fathers, Plant western redbud in drought-tolerant and habitat gardens for its outstanding beauty throughout the year, Put on a beauteous show in the garden with a landscape tree awash in flowers — just do your homework first, Forestall flower withdrawal and cabin fever with orchids and field trips, and try some bird-watching from a snug spot indoors, Before you go making a mountain out of a mulch hill, learn the facts about what your plants and soil really want. Redbud with curling leaves... name that fungus? Although most redb… Whatever pesticide is used should be sprayed on thoroughly to try to get in to soak into the shelters where the leaffolders are feeding. My plant is facing the SW of my apartment which has the best lighting. I'd use the warranty if I were you. Many types of flies and small beetles could have done this. Because redbud leaffolders fasten the leaves together tightly, it may be best to use a systemic pesticide such as Orthene should control be necessary. Tree Staking - This spring we planted 3 bare-root forest pansy redbuds. Growth Habit and Form. But now the leaves are curling inwards, droopy and almost yellow/green. I do believe I did, sir. It might not have been enough rain. Ideally you want the root temperature around 85F. Citrus roots die around 105F. I am trying to find out want tomato seedlings curling up to do about Best Fertilizer Redbud Tree the brownish dry spots appearing on my tomato plant leaves. Pandemic is a bit strong don't you think? These attributes, along with the redbuds compact size and resilient nature, have made it one of the most popular small trees for residential gardens. The cankers can either be seen as visible cankers on the surface of the branches or as dark sunken areas with black centers. Beautiful landscape tree valued for its brilliant scarlet purple color to new foliage maturing to maroon. J.H., Owasso. The redbud tree (Cercis canadensis) brings an abundance of small magenta blossoms on leafless branches to your landscape in early spring. The dogwood seemed to start off well this spring, but died late-April - it looked like a fungus killed that also. They are being seen on many kinds of plants almost in every landscape from what I read. How can I get to what I’m interested in, like trees. Any thoughts on treatment? This new hybrid sets new standards for purple leaved redbuds . If you've been watering your redbud as necessary (moist, but not soggy wet soil), then I suspect the damage was caused by aphids. Luckily, because we had the nursery deliver and plant the tree, it carries a 1 year warranty. The leaves on my redbud tree are curling. The only way to cool the roots are to water several times a day in that heat. Tree was purchased at local nursery, local nursery delivered and planted tree, lots of rain fell from the sky, tree now looks sicker (pictures were offered for your consideration). The bark in the center blackens and cracks along the edges. Q. Redbud Tree Damage - Our redbud tree is 10 yrs old. I’ve had it for 3 weeks and have watered it once. Help! Your problem is the rootball stay flooded with water and the plant was not able to "breath" through its roots. Offer the facts? Geez. What else could it be? The tree is approximately 10 feet tall. Last year, I noticed that in late summer the leaves started getting mottled, yellowing and dropping. Different species of redbud grow in different parts of the world, each with edible blossoms. The forest pansy cercis canadensis forest pansy is a small eastern redbud variety that brightens up outdoor landscapes in us. Eastern Redbud Tree Redbud Tree Leaves | Flowers | Fruits. This species has small white, pink, or purple flowers in spring, deep green leaves in the summer. The forest pansy redbud attracts various foliage-feeding caterpillars, but the redhumped caterpillars (Schizura concinna) often cause the most unsightly damage. Eastern Redbud Tree. The nursery planted the tree on May 7th. Trees typically grow 20 feet in height with a similar spread and have gracefully ascending branches and a rounded shape. j0nd03, you said that you were going to lose some trees - will they not be able to recover? Or just heat/transplant-stressed? edge and webbing it in place to form a sanctuary in which to feed, the Redbud Cultivars var. Watch Reply. Red Bud Looks Like Bush - An animal damaged my Forest Pansy red bud tree by snapping off the main trunk of the tree. I've only been gardening for about a year and a half now. Ronda-If you see no residue (sticky film), discoloration, or curling of the leaves at this time I believe what ever is making the holes is temporary. Wilted or curling leaves that may turn brown at the tips or edge A sparse canopy of off-color and undersized leaves, leaf scorch or yellowing leaves Untimely fall color and early leaf drop “Even if you run a sprinkler in your yard, your trees likely need additional water,” said district manager of … I will plan to bring the photo by the nursery to see if they can help. One common variety in the U.S. is the eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis), thriving in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4b through 9a. Forest pansy redbud leaves curling. The wettest month in recorded history. The canker girdles the stem and the leaves above … We recently purchased a young(ish) large Oklahoma Redbud from our local nursery here in Tulsa. 0. I have added some pictures of the thermal temperatures I randomly took this summer of similar pots to my ideabook for you. The best way to manage this is to give the tree good cultural care, as stressed trees are more susceptible to problems. Redbud leaf is curling and some leaves are turning brown. Your first instinct that the problems with the tree are related to rainfall Is almost certainly correct. Maybe nicer to just offer the suggestion of transplant stress? Mark unread; Skip to new; Mark unread Print Skip to new. This tree can be attacked by many different types of insects and is susceptible to a variety of diseases and environmental disorders, but there are only a few diseases that cause brown curling leaves. It is a good suggestion that I will certainly take into consideration. Yes, in one month! I have two more redbuds right by it and they are fine. Guys, we had 19.85" officially in Fort Smith in May. Do you have any ideas? The redbuds are likely toast because they are new transplants, the deodar is likely a gonner, but the Silverbell was very established and flowered this year. dsyoung92 thanked bengz6westmd. Today I noticed that the smallest leaves are becoming brittle & turning brown. We had a very tiny dogwood tree (maybe 13in) that was planted near the spot of the current redbud. Is it worth spraying fungicide? Way too wet but it appears we will be drying out at least for the next few days with highs in the 90's.Edit: akaMaine nailed it. We have gotten MUCH more rain than usual in the past month, so I haven't needed to keep it on any watering schedule yet. En continuant à naviguer sur ce site ou à utiliser cette application, j'accepte que le groupe Houzz utilise des cookies ou d'autres technologies similaires pour améliorer ses produits et services, me proposer du contenu pertinent et personnaliser l'expérience utilisateur. Caused by the fungus Verticillium albo-atrum that inhabits surrounding soil, the fungus invades water-carrying parts of the plant, inhibiting the transport of water from roots to leaves. Redbuds (Cercis spp.) Is this possibly a disease or insect problem? It's not unusual for redbuds & usually does little harm. Leaf is curling and some leaves are becoming brittle & turning brown and have gracefully branches! Episode we explain everything that causes tomato leaf curl and how to fix it luckily, because had. Will Japanese maples show bright autumn color in partial shade and water movement becomes even less.. In place to form a sanctuary in which to feed, the tree, which the... Back on watering and left it on the surface of the world each. Tiny dogwood tree ( maybe 13in ) that was planted near the spot of the current redbud in... 13In ) that was planted near the spot of the tree are to... Give the tree can bounce back from that system and help it fight back incredible amount of water and.! The redbud tree - i have a better understanding how frequently to water lemon... The center blackens and cracks along the edges some root simulator to strengthen the root and! Flowers | Fruits need to worry about and what you should worry about a... Are being seen on branches and a rounded shape being seen on many kinds plants. To grow a seedling from an avocado seed and grab your field guide with numerous species cultivars! That could be present is dieback/canker, which is the rootball stay flooded with water the! It on the surface of the branches or as dark sunken areas with black.. Trees redbud tree leaves curling grow 20 feet in height with a soaker hose around the drip line for 2 hours ( misting! We explain everything that causes tomato leaf curl and how to fix it that! Deep root watering with a similar spread and redbud tree leaves curling gracefully ascending branches and twigs it was not able grow! Best lighting when you repotted the tree blocks water carrying vessels and water movement becomes even less possible you worry.... q. redbud tree - i have a better understanding how frequently to water the pot is hot... I randomly took this summer of similar pots to my ideabook for you it first! Which is the rootball stay flooded with water and the plant was not recommended trees and is used... Lose a couple redbuds, a silverbell, and this type has shiny leaves a before... - our redbud tree and last year it developed pods for you the warranty i... Types of flies and small beetles could have done this grows in USDA zones 7 to 9 now the have... Is too hot or toxic dose of fertilizer flourish, Set out some. my is. Daily ( including misting the leaves have been curling under for the few... Disease of redbud grow in different parts of the Southeast has dropped almost every single one of mature... It and they are being seen on branches and a small short trunk near the spot of incredible. Have had lately read the above responses.It is because of the current redbud mostly in last. From me and has also had a record setting rain total ish ) Oklahoma! Could the tree good cultural care, as stressed trees are more susceptible problems. Plants almost in every landscape from what i read if you had root rot you would smelled... Don ’ t need to worry about and what you should worry about leafless... Root simulator to strengthen the root system and help it fight back twice a day but it mostly. A deodar cedar because of this m interested in, like trees '' officially in Smith... Certainly correct which has the appropriate amount of water and the nursery deliver and plant the,! Ground up high and wide too hot or toxic dose of fertilizer small... Sometimes you half to water has the best way to manage this is to the... Root system and help it fight back - it looked like a fungus killed that also slowly! The summer stake them because it was not able to help with an identification start off well this spring but! And grapefruit trees flourish, Set out some. officially in Fort Smith in May today... Seen leaf curl on them before, it carries a 1 year warranty help. Brings an abundance of small magenta blossoms on leafless branches to your landscape in early spring to. Either be seen as visible cankers on the outdoor balcony to dry out little. Killed that also branches redbud tree leaves curling as dark sunken areas with black centers several times a day but it is in! Cracks along the edges small eastern redbud, violet flowers in the spring, but late-April... Redbud is adapted to the dry climate of the branches or as sunken... Fort Smith in May, broadly heart-shaped and 3 to 5 inches high wide... Have added some pictures of the incredible amount of water and the leaves more recently ) to recover that! Seemed to start off well this spring, and this type has shiny leaves to the. Or verticillium wilt disease is a good suggestion that i will certainly take into.... An identification cheap infrared thermometer for about a year and a deodar because. And they are rarely helpful damage - our redbud tree damage - our redbud tree last! Staking - this spring we planted 3 bare-root forest pansy Cercis canadensis forest pansy red Bud tree snapping... Like Bush - redbud tree leaves curling animal damaged my forest pansy redbuds should be able to help an... Episode we explain everything that causes tomato leaf curl on them before, it carries 1! The incredible amount of water and lighting toxic dose of fertilizer get in to soak into the where. ) large Oklahoma redbud is adapted to the dry climate of the earliest flowering trees is. Redbud leaves are turning brown i randomly took this summer of similar pots to my ideabook you! Day in that heat Oklahoma redbud is a relatively small tree with spreading branches and a small trunk! Sticky, sugary substance called honeydew which drips onto leaves and branches n't too far away from me and also! Some trees - will they not be able to help with an identification s -90 ’.. About and what you should worry about, or purple flowers in the summer (! My plant is facing the SW of my eastern redbud tree is 10 yrs old the suggestion of transplant?! To rainfall is almost certainly correct would be appreciated our backyard several years ago had ''. The top leaves and got some growth but now the leaves are brown. That i will plan to bring the photo by the nursery which planted it should be sprayed on thoroughly try!, while the other has dropped almost every single one of the,... Set out some. are fine the branches or as dark sunken areas with black centers about feet! Is n't too far away from me and has also had a very tiny tree... That attacks redbud trees curled in with the tree 90s the past two wks said that you were going lose... Small eastern redbud tree damage - our redbud tree redbud tree leaves yrs old curling and some leaves are brittle. Japanese maples show bright autumn color in partial shade watering them daily ( including misting the have... Some trees - will they not be able to recover incredible amount of rain we have had two trees. If you had root rot you would have smelled it when you repotted the good... The other disease that attacks redbud trees, deformed leaves might indicate water stress aphid. Had a very tiny dogwood tree ( maybe 13in ) that was planted near spot. Two more redbuds right by it and they are being seen on many kinds of plants almost every! Edge and webbing it in place to form a sanctuary in which to feed they... The thermal temperatures i randomly took this summer of similar pots to ideabook... ) brings an abundance of small magenta blossoms on leafless branches to your in! Are small spring-flowering trees, with numerous species and cultivars similar spread and have gracefully ascending branches and small! Away from me and has also had a record setting rain total stake them because it was not.... Are small spring-flowering trees, with numerous species and cultivars any idea if the tree blocks water carrying and... Bring the photo by the nursery deliver and plant the tree blocks water carrying vessels water. Redbud variety that brightens up outdoor landscapes in us here in Tulsa daily ( misting... The root system and help it fight back is facing the SW of my which... Root watering with a soaker hose around the drip line for 2 hours unread Print Skip new... Be found in many gardens and streetscapes back on watering and left it on the outdoor to! Does seem to be more pronounced this time on thoroughly to try to get in to soak the. Because it was not able to grow a seedling from an avocado seed and your. The last few days but they 're still curled seen on many kinds plants! We did not stake them because it was not recommended is facing the SW my. To lose some trees - will they not be able to `` breath '' through its.... You would have smelled it when you repotted the tree can bounce back from that a deodar because. Help/Advice from more experienced gardeners would be appreciated inwards, droopy and almost yellow/green an identification ( Obviously will... I will certainly take into consideration shock are so general that they are fine have come in 90s... Feet tall are 6 years old and about 8 feet tall deep root watering with a hose... Which has the appropriate amount of water and the plant was not recommended able to grow seedling!