[62] Matt Ventresca, The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain Injury, Communication & Sport, 7(2): 135-156 (2019). Riding a bicycle carries risk and not a whole lot of parents are not letting their kids ride a bike. In deciding whether it is ethical for you to buy amber from Myanmar, do you need to guard against the self-serving bias unduly affecting your decision? [50] The NFL has also changed rules to discourage helmet-to-helmet contact,[51] and has instituted protocols for safely returning concussed players to the field. [31] Christie Aschwanden, Football’s Concussion Crisis is Awash with Pseudoscience, Wired.com, Oct. 2, 2019. [80] Anthony E. Prior, The Slave Side of Sunday (2006). [53] Studies indicate that there are helmets that may decrease concussions,[54] but neuroscientist Julie Stamm says: “No helmet will ever be concussion-proof, because the brain still moves inside the skull. Suicide rates among NCAA football players are the highest among all sports, but they are substantially lower than the general population age 18-22 or college students in that age range. A collection of one-of-a-kind videos that highlight the ethical aspects of various subjects. Login See Bennet I. Omalu et al, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in a National Football League Player, Neurosurgery, 57: 128-134 (2005); [9] Ann McKee et al., The Neuropathology of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Brain Pathology, 25: 350-364 (2015). Support your position with data and facts. [41] Ashwin L. Rao et al., Suicide in National Collegiate Athletic (NCAA) Athletes: a 9-Year Analysis of the NCAA Resolutions Database, Sports Health 7(5): 452-457 (2015). Maybe that person has killed another one in self-defense. How might the self-serving bias impact team physicians’ and trainers’ judgments and actions? Football rules intentionally create high speed collisions between human beings, making such injuries inevitable and the sport controversial. [74] Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. One of the oldest amber deposits in the world, dating back 100 million years, is located in the Northern region of Myanmar. Youth football players average 240 head impacts per season. Russell, Children and Dangerous Sport and Recreation, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 34: 176-193 (2007). Result-oriented actions are not taken in deontology by the people and that is why it is different from that of utilitarianism. In one study, use of newly-designed football helmets and safe tackling techniques eliminated concussions for 20 middle school aged players for an entire season. Deontological ethical theory is Kantian in origin. So, we just need to kind of put it in context.”. Don’t cheat.” Deontology is simple to apply. African-Americans make up 12.6% of the American population but 68% of NFL rosters. [13] Michael L. Alosco et al., Repetitive Head Impact Exposure and Later-Life Plasma Total Tau in Former National Football League Players, Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring, 7: 33-40 (2017). [29] Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concussions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neuroscientist Julie Stamm). Explain. [46] Robert F. Heary et al., Is Youth Football Safe? [20] Philip H. Montenigro et al., Cumulative Head Impact Exposure Predicts Later-Life Depression, Apathy, Executive Dysfunction, and Cognitive Impairment in Former High School and College Players, Journal of Neurotraumua 34(2) (2017). Despite its strengths, rigidly following deontology can produce results that many people find unacceptable. For many years this mining area has been protected by the Kachin Independence Army. Bry’s answer is that only the football players are being paid to do this “for our entertainment.”. Do you see parallels between the debate as to whether to begin playing football again in the wake of the pandemic and the debate as to whether to abolish or reform football in light of the evidence on brain trauma? The reality is that we still don’t know who is most likely to suffer a concussion, who will take longer to recover, how anatomic or genetic differences influence concussions, and who may be at risk of prolonged symptoms or developing cognitive problems later in life.”[34], Furthermore, many of the studies cited by those who would like to abolish tackle football have involved relatively small sample sizes. In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek: δέον, 'obligation, duty' + λόγος, 'study') is the normative ethical theory that the morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a series of rules, rather than based on the consequences of the action. It is sometimes described as "duty" or "obligation" or "rule" -based ethics, because rules "bind you to your duty". What Does Deontological Ethics Mean? a. Relatedly, should fans of the game be ashamed of themselves? [27] Bryan R. Cobb et al., Head Impact Exposure in Youth Football: Elementary School Ages 9-12 Years and the Effect of Practice Structure, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 41: 2463-2473 (2013). [37] Everett J. Lehman et al., Suicide Mortality Among Retired National Football League Players Who Played 5 or More Seasons, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(10): 2486-2491 (2016). [16] Kevin M. Guskiewicz et al., Recurrent Concussion and Risk of Depression in Retired Professional Football Players, Medicine & Science in Sports & Leisure, 39(6): 903-909 (2007). Deontology comes from the Greek word for “duty.” Thus, deontological ethics maintains that actions are not justified by … How does deontological ethics define morality? All three? https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216311939?via%3Dihub, “Dodging Rumour and Insurgency: The Hunt for Burmese Amber Goes to the Heart of Myanmar’s Turbulent North,” Financial Post, Jan. 26, 2017. https://business.financialpost.com/commodities/mining/dodging-rumour-and-insurgency-the-hunt-for-burmese-amber-goes-to-the-heart-of-myanmars-turbulent-north, “It is Time to Bring Global Attention to the Trade in Burmese Amber,” NewScientist, May 1, 2019. https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232283-300-it-is-time-to-bring-global-attention-to-the-trade-in-burmese-amber/, American football is a rough and dangerous game. They can suffer concussions from milder collisions than would be required to concuss a collegiate or professional player. However, in letting the missile launch, thousands of people will die. Gammon, Katharine, “The Human Cost of Amber,” The Atlantic, Aug. 2, 2019.   https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2019/08/amber-fossil-supply-chain-has-dark-human-cost/594601/, Grimaldi, David, “Amber,” Current Biology Magazine. This avoids subjectivity and uncertainty because you only have to follow set rules. Then, take a … They do not presupposeany particular position on moral ontology or on moral epistemology.Presumably, a deontologist can be a moral realist of either thenatural (moral properties are identical to natural properties) ornonnatural (moral properties are not themselves natural propertieseven if they are nonreductively related to natural properties)variety. The term deontology comes from the Greek word deon, meaning duty. And How Will It Change in 2019?, ESPN, Aug. 19, 2019, at https://www.espn.com/nfl/story/_/id/27372974/did-helmet-rule-actually-work-2018-how-change-2019. What it considers is the ideals and values you have followed that have resulted in the best possible action. If you were a university scientist, how would you decide whether it is ethical for you to buy amber from Myanmar? However, in 2017 the Myanmar government dropped leaflets from helicopters informing the population in northern Kachin that civilians and Kachin militants who remain in the region will be considered hostile opposition to the government military forces. There is no official state religion but the Myanmar government favors the majority Theravada Buddhism population. Discuss your reasoning. After a single season, college football players had less midbrain white matter than they had started with. [1] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. Amber also plays an invaluable role in research. The term deontology comes from the Greek word deon, meaning duty. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is “brain degeneration likely caused by repeated head traumas.”[6] Repetitive head impacts (RHIs) can cumulatively lead to CTE and early death, even though no single RHI results in a concussion. The Kachin Independence Army, which includes ethnic minorities who live in the northern Kachin and surrounding regions of Myanmar, has been in armed conflict with the Myanmar government for the restoration of minority ethnic groups’ rights. They’re healthy … And people say that’s crazy. See also Ann C. McKee et al., The Spectrum of Disease in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Brain, 136(1)): 43-64 (2013)(study of donated brains of 64 athletes found “the stage of [CTE] correlated with increased duration of football play, survival after football and age at death” for 34 football players). [90] J.S. This yellow to reddish-brown translucent material has been used in a number of ways, including to make jewelry, in Egyptian burials, and in the healing arts. Deontological theories are normative theories. Deontological ethics is a type of ethics and ethical theories.It judges actions based on whether they follow certain rules. It just requires that people follow the rules and do their duty. [5] Although concussions can carry serious consequences, they are termed a “mild” form of TBI because they are not typically life threatening. Deontological ethics, or deontology, is the normative ethical theory that the morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a series of rules, rather than based on the consequences of the action. [78] David Gee, Doubt is Their Product: How Industry’s Assault on science Threatens Your Health, Journal of Public Health Policy, 29(4): 474-479 (2008). It is a concept which is based on a person’s obligation or duty to treat others with respect. DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS Deontology is the view that because there are moral constraints on promoting overall best consequences, sometimes the right action is not the one whose consequences are best. Why or why not? How about the reverse—why do many people who believe football players should be free to decide what they do with their bodies take decidedly un-libertarian positions on issues such as abortion, marijuana legalization, and assisted suicide? Why, then, do you think they oppose letting adults choose freely to play football? Don’t steal. Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? In religious deontology, the principles derive from divine commandment so that under religious laws, we are morally obligated not to steal, lie, or cheat. [56] Christie Aschwanden, Football’s Concussion Crisis Is Awash with Pseudoscience, Wired.com, Oct. 2, 2019 (quoting brain scientists Adnan Hirad). If you took a deontological approach, what would your reasoning look like? [49] Lisa Bero, Industry Sponsorship and Research Outcome: A Cochrane Review, JAMA Internal Medicine, 173(7): 580-581 (2013). Deontological ethics is in keeping with Scripture, natural moral law, and intuitions from common sense. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. It is different from both the above concepts as it concentrates completely on virtues and ideals. While some researchers and universities feel as though they should refrain from making such amber purchases, their failure to participate enables many private collectors to remove collections from the public or to charge researchers an exorbitant fee for access. 8 short videos present the 7 principles of values-driven leadership from Giving Voice to Values by Mary Gentile. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Other studies found that NFL players who suffered concussions were more likely to later be diagnosed with depression. Is there a case to be made for “justified harm” in any of these leagues? This hostile takeover of the profitable Kachin amber mines ensures that amber purchases from researchers and private collectors will help fund the government side of the Myanmar ethnic civil war. Why or why not? [66] Daniel Goldberg, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, the National Football League, and the Manufacture of Doubt: An Ethical, Legal, and Historical Analysis, Journal of Legal Medicine, 34: 157-191 (2013). Deontology (or Deontological Ethics) is the branch of ethics in which people define what is morally right or wrong by the actions themselves, rather than referring to the consequences of those actions, or the character of the person who performs them. [7], If only one thing is clear about the current science surrounding sports-related concussions (SRCs) and related brain injuries, it is that very little is clear about the current science. Being Your Best Self, Part 1: Moral Awareness, Being Your Best Self, Part 2: Moral Decision Making, Being Your Best Self, Part 3: Moral Intent, Being Your Best Self, Part 4: Moral Action, Ethical Leadership, Part 1: Perilous at the Top, Ethical Leadership, Part 2: Best Practices, Curbing Corruption: GlaxoSmithKline in China, Deontology is an ethical theory that uses rules to distinguish right from wrong. Which approach do you think should be used to determine the ethicality of banning, or at least seriously reforming, football to reduce head trauma? The most distinctive feature of deontological moral conceptions is that they define fundamental principles of right and justice in terms other than taking the most effective means to promote maxi- … Explain. Steve Almond argues that “a civilian leisure class … has created, for its own entertainment, a caste of warriors too big and strong and fast to play a child’s game without grievously injuring one another.”. You think you know the difference between right and wrong, don't you? [67] Adam M. Finkel & Kevin F. Bieniek, How Public Helath Science Evaluates Evidence, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 25(3): 564-589 (2019). An Analysis of Youth Football Head Impact Data, Neurosurgery (Jan. 2020), available at https://doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz563. [33] William Stewart et al., Primum Non Nocere: A Call for Balance When Reporting on CTE, Lancet Neurology, 18:231-232 (2019). The term deontology is derived from the Greek deon, “duty,” and logos, “science.”. [14] Jesse Mez et al., Clinicopathological Evaluation of Chronic Traumatic Encepahalopathy in Players of American Football, JAMA, 318(4): 360-370 (2017). Our society allows people to voluntarily choose to undertake many risky professions, including coal miners, fire jumpers, soldiers, underwater oil rig welders, and others. A policy issue? Explain why and how using that approach might play out. [35]  Other studies have involved skewed samples, including one where all the NFL players’ brains had been donated because of mental declines that the donors had suffered before their deaths.[36]. 2.3 Deontology Probably the most complex of all the ethical systems we look at here is Kantian logic, which is a deontological theory. Deontology is a school of moral philosophy in which ethical behavior equals following rules. [23] Steven Senne, Student Athletes Still Reluctant to Report Concussions, Nationwide Children’s Study Finds, Columbus Dispatch, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds. A study of 3,904 Wisconsin men found no significant harmful association between playing football in high school and cognitive impairment or depression later in life. Deontological ethics, in philosophy, ethical theories that place special emphasis on the relationship between duty and the morality of human actions. 3. [60] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. Meaning of Deontological ethics. Utilitarian? Deontological ethical theory is Kantian in origin. [61] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. Deontological ethics is commonly contrasted to consequentialism, virtue ethics, and pragmatic ethics. Reducing tackling in practices has reduced overall concussion numbers among high school players, even though the number of concussions in games has risen slightly. [38] Jesse Mez et al., Duration of American Football Play and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopothy, Annals of Neurology, 2019; DOI: 10.1002/ana.25611. The ability to hold a piece of history untouched by time has resulted in a number of scientific discoveries and advances such as feathers on a non-avian dinosaur dated 99 million years ago and the biosynthesis of gene clusters for novel antibiotics. —deontological adj.1. [12] Jesse Mez et al., Duration of American Football Play and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopothy, Annals of Neurology, 2019; DOI: 10.1002/ana.25611. [55] Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concussions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neuroscientist Julie Stamm). [58] Other people believe that media discussions have impeded needed change in minimizing sports violence. It is sometimes described as duty-, obligation-, or rule-based ethics. Would you prevent kids under 14 from playing tackle football? And concussion recurrence has been reduced, most likely by protocols guiding when it is safe to return to play. Many recent studies point to how dangerous football is to players’ long-term brain health. [6] Mayo Clinic, at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20370921. Deontology deals with intentions and motives. You can hack the network and cancel the launch, but it’s against your professional code of ethics to break into any software system without permission. Explain. As told in the movies, a significant scientific breakthrough occurred in 2002 when an African-American neuropathologist in Pittsburgh named Bennet Omalu (played by Will Smith in the 2015 movie “Concussion”) performed an autopsy on Hall of Fame center Mike Webster. [8] Such proteins develop in tangles that slowly strangle neurons and, consequently, inhibit brain function.[9]. [5] Center for Disease Control, at https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_whatis.html. Ethics can be really hard to define, since what you think is right, or ethical, might be very different from what your friends or family members think. [56] Professor Goldberg argues that “there is little evidence that such incremental changes [e.g., in tackling techniques] have a substantial risk-reducing effect.”[57]. [42] Sameer K. Deshpande et al, Association of Playing High School Football with Cognition and Mental Health Later in Life, JAMA Neurology, 74(8): 909-918 (2017). [47] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. Most importantly, other studies seem to indicate that concussions may be more benign. Are the answers different for NFL players, college players, high school players, and under-14 players? [39] Atheendar S. Venkataramani et al, Association Between Playing American Football and Long-term Mortality, JAMA, 319(8): 800-806  (2018). Copyright © 2020 Ethics Unwrapped - McCombs School of Business – The University of Texas at Austin, 8 short videos present the 7 principles of values-driven leadership from, https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2019/08/amber-fossil-supply-chain-has-dark-human-cost/594601/, https://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(19)31097-8.pdf, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2019/07/fossil-bird-in-amber-has-unusually-long-toes/, https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232280-600-blood-amber-the-exquisite-trove-of-fossils-fuelling-war-in-myanmar/, https://dc.law.utah.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1121&context=ulr, https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/05/fossils-burmese-amber-offer-exquisite-view-dinosaur-times-and-ethical-minefield, https://consult-myanmar.com/2018/07/11/myanmars-new-gold-mine-is-dinosaur-amber/, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216311939?via%3Dihub, https://business.financialpost.com/commodities/mining/dodging-rumour-and-insurgency-the-hunt-for-burmese-amber-goes-to-the-heart-of-myanmars-turbulent-north, https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232283-300-it-is-time-to-bring-global-attention-to-the-trade-in-burmese-amber/, https://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/index.html, https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_whatis.html, https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20370921, https://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds, https://www.cnn.com/2019/10/15/health/concussion-high-school-sports-study/index.html, https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html, https://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/24/3/180.full, https://www.espn.com/nfl/story/_/id/27372974/did-helmet-rule-actually-work-2018-how-change-2019, https://www.sportscasting.com/nfl-concussion-protocol-explained-how-does-it-work/, https://slate.com/culture/2015/12/the-truth-about-will-smiths-concussion-and-bennet-omalu.html, https://www.healthnewsreview.org/2018/01/sports-desks-drop-the-ball-on-big-concussion-story/, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harm_principle, https://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/2020/04/07/oklahoma-states-mike-gundy-says-his-team-needs-play-benefit-state-economy/. Deontology is a theory that suggests actions are good or bad according to a clear set of rules. Of 111 NFL players whose brains were donated for one study, 110 were diagnosed with CTE. Are college (and high school) players sufficiently mature to make reasoned judgments based on such disclosures? Deontology is the branch of morality which deals with the actions that must be taken as per the teachings of Holy Scriptures. 2. Myanmar amber is plentiful, high quality and contains inclusions within the resin. We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019. Deontological is an approach to ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, instead of examining its consequences or any other considerations. Have to follow set rules Heary et al., is football bad the! Anthony E. Prior, the Atlantic, Feb. 1, 2020 to answering this question, what the! Intuitions from common sense a non-consequential theory as the decision of whether an is. 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